For any kind of structure, the foundation has to become constructed below the bottom surface. Foundation in an effort to rest on the hard surface, the bottom degree of the foundation will be excavated. For that purpose, the trenches are dug by hand tools for example pick-axe, chisel, hammer etc. just in case of foundations having single wall buildings. Just in case of large project work from the foundation from the building structure, the trenches are dug by mechanical diggers. During the entire process of excavation, there‘s a chance of collapse of the edges and in an effort to prevent this temporary timbering support towards the excavated trenches is assigned to uphold the edges from the excavation. Thus additionally protects the labors working inside the trench. The kind of timbering support and it is erection for trenches depends upon type and characteristics of rock or soil.
Face Line Method : During this method center line Isn‘t taken into account. In load bearing structure, each face from the foundation trench is measured coming from the fringe of plot and fixed by wooden pegs. Just in case framed structure, each face from the column footing is measured coming from the fringe of plot boundary after which It‘s being marked on the floor.
Timbering and strutting : It‘s the approach to giving the temporary support to the edges from the trench, once the depth from the trench is large or once the sub-soil is loose or soft.
Explain earthwork for embankment : For many large embankments, until the starting of actual work, the middle line ought to be marked by pegs at suitable intervals, properly laid out curves, at the highest and bottom edges from the excavation. The website should be cleared of trees, grass and other obstructions if any, to obtain the new excavated earth. All loose surface or soft soil ought to be removed. Just in case of embankments for any dam, sand or gravel is mixed with clay. Given by a stability point of view, the embankment should be non-slippery and water tight.
Line Method : During this method, just in case of load bearing structure until the commencement from the excavation of trenches to the foundation, foundation plan‘s first prepared. The plan‘s fully dimensioned in the least breaks and openings.
The middle line from the wall, and that is perpendicular towards the long wall is marked by establishing a right angle. A right angle is found out by forming triangles with sides 3, 4 and 5 units long. This may also be done using the help of theodolite.